Country Name: Syrian Arab Republic ( الجمهورية العربية السورية
al-Jumhūriyyah al-‘Arabīyah as-Sūriyyah)
Capital City: Damascus
Home Town: Palmyra
National Flower: Jasmine
National Anthem: Homat el Diyar (Guardians of the Land)
Human Name: Sahir al-Hamawi
Nickname(s): Some people refer to him by his last name, ‘al-Hamawi’. He is referred to by other Arab Nations as simply, ‘Souriyya’. Alima, and other people close to him simply refer to him by his first name, ‘Sahir’. He prefers to be called by his nation name if you don’t know him well.
Human Age: 25 (Country wise, around 2,875 years old. Born in 863 BC)
Celebrated Birthday: 17th of April (Independence from the French Mandate)
Languages: Syrian Arabic, Kurdish, Armenian and French (Can speak Syrian Arabic, French and English very well, but, he can start a general conversation in both Kurdish and Armenian.)
Major Religions: Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, Alawite, Christians (Greek and Armenian Orthodox), Druze and Judaism.
Lebanon: Cousin (Treats her more like the sister he never had)
Pets: Maryam, a small black little Syrian hamster and an eagle named Zenobia.
Appearance: Sahir has light brown eyes, medium tanned skin and short, jet black hair. There are two spikes on his hair; one represents the capturing of more than half of the governorate of Quneitra (which is he bigger one) and the other one, the Golan Heights (the smaller one). His hair is naturally and slightly, wavy and he has a bit of a side-fringe. He is of a medium build, and is 1.78m tall.
Clothes: He’s usually seen wearing his military uniform most of the time, but that was only from 1960-1990. But his casual clothing consists of a dark green jacket with a black tank top underneath, along with dark blue jeans. He wears an Arab scarf in the winter to keep himself warm.
1. Siege of Ma’arra 1098
2. 1860 Massacres
3. Famine during the Ottoman Empire in World War One, 1915-1918
4. Battle of Maysalun, 1920
5. Arab-Israeli War, 1948
6. Six Day War, 1967
7. Yom Kippur War, 1973 (Burn scar from the Israeli use of Napalm, it was a second degree burn, and generally those are more painful when it comes to napalm. This scar starts from the left side of his collarbone and traces down, and stops at his shoulder blade)
8. Tadmor Prison Massacre, 1980
9. Hama Massacre, 1982 (Burn mark on his right wrist from Hafez al-Assad’s ‘Scorched Earth’ policy)
10. Syrian Uprising, 2011-2012
Sahir is a friendly, kind, energetic and genuine young man that is very down to earth despite his troubled past. He is a bright young man, he is quite open minded and is more than happy to speak his mind. To the people he loathes and despises, he tends to openly show his hate towards them, in particular, Israel. To people he doesn’t know, he can be polite to them but he does tend to make his judgements, as it takes him a little while for him to open up to them. It is quite rare for him to be depressed or upset, if he is, he will usually either talk to someone about it, or he will keep it to himself.
He mostly enjoys having fun and the outdoors; he doesn’t like being kept in the house. Sahir loves kids and enjoys playing with them and making them laugh. When it comes to any armed conflict however, he becomes very serious. Due to his recent events and the uprisings, he has become a lot more serious and cold. Don’t let his outer demeanour fool you though; he is his friendly and energetic self on the inside.
He has quite a few close relations here and there, but most of his relationships have a bad past as it is obvious that Syria hates Israel’s guts. They have never gotten along with each other, and have always gotten caught up in conflicts with one another due to Israel’s treatment of Palestinian people and the Israeli occupation of his Golan Heights.
His relationship with Lebanon can be classified at times complicated, but warm and close. During her Civil War, he helped her out and kept her under his military occupation for thirty years. Even though both Lebanon and Syria may have been through tough times with each other in the past, and have had a few disagreements, the two will do anything to improve their relations in order to become closer. The two have known each other for a very long time, and have become quite close as of recent.
Iran has been a close ally of Syria’s for a while and came to Iran’s aid during the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980’s. His friendship with Jordan has also been strained in the past to a certain extent due to accusations towards each other made by both sides, but the two are also very close friends since Jordan was historically apart of southern Syria, and the creation of warmer relations. Iraq too, has been one of Syria’s closest friends for a while but their relations in the past were rather strained due to political indifferences and rivalry between the Baath Parties in both countries. Their similarities in culture and in history, however have led them to have a closer friendship.
Armenia is also another close friend of Syria’s. The two have known each other for quite a while since Syria was a part of the Kingdom of Armenia for a short period of time under Tigranes the Great. They also go quite far back in history as well. Both were a part of the Ottoman Empire and the various Persian Empires as well. Sahir helped her out and sheltered her people during the Armenian Genocide which was committed by the Ottoman Empire from 1915-1923. Today, they have become quite close due to their history and his hospitality of sheltering her and her people. France granted Syria independence, and his relations with him have gone up and down, but have been of a reasonable standard.
His troubled past has led him to somewhat become a better person today. His past was filled with military coups, conflicts, political instability, population loss, unstable relations with other countries as well as a few massacres, which lead him to be quite serious for most of his past. Sahir himself doesn’t like remembering his past much due to the struggles he endured. He has taken these struggles as ‘life lessons’ and has learnt from them.
In his free time, Sahir enjoys getting out of the house and go places. He likes to play with his hamster; Maryam and his pet eagle Zenobia. He spends most of his time with Lebanon and Armenia, but also with Iran, Libya, Jordan and Iraq. The latter only when he can. He is a master at pick-pocketing, and tends to carry a small dagger around with him from his assassin times just in case any trouble arises. He enjoys reading, dabke, listening to music, free-running, going for walks and playing soccer (for exercise) cooking and also walking around in the souks. Most of all, he enjoys the company of his loved ones, and friends.
Who he sounds like: Samo Zein
- His capital city, Damascus, is one of the world’s oldest continually inhabited cities.
- Syria has been known to be the cradle of civilisation as it was the site of the sprawling Eblan civilisation in the third millennium BC.
- The Syrian city of Ras Shamra is home to one of the oldest alphabets in the world; Ugarit.
- Syria was also home to the Syrian Sect of Hashashins at Masyaf during the twelfth century A.D during the Third Crusade.
- He’s quite the romantic and it’s all thanks to France, really.
- He enjoys dancing dabke, and listening to dabke music. He takes a lot of interest in Palestinian, Lebanese and also Syrian dabke.
- He has honed some techniques from the Hashashins in Masyaf during the third crusade. He continued to use those techniques under the Mamluks, and he still uses some of those techniques, but only when it is needed.
- He does know how to cook, but is pretty average at it in skill.
- His favourite foods are kibbeh, falafel, shawarma and also pita.
- He is Sunni Muslim.
- He loves listening to Farid al-Atrash and other old Arab singers.
- Sahir really loves kids; he enjoys their company, and mostly loves making them laugh.
- He owns a hookah that he occasionally smokes.
- Sahir is also a person who is very down to earth, and he’s quite a real person in regards to personality.
LIKES: The heat, Summer, eagles, deserts, celebrating his country’s festivals and holidays, Playing with Maryam, hanging out with friends and family, Golan Heights, Pick-pocketing, Masyaf, parkour, getting out of the house, Syrian hamsters, shisha, food, reading, politics, literature, playing soccer and learning more about the Hashashins.
DISLIKES: Israel, America, France, Desert storms, Winter, civil unrest, humidity, censorship policies within Syria, past and present bosses, seeing his people suffer, oppression, being forced to do things he doesn’t want to do, being at home all day, losing the people that he loves, ignorant people and the mistreatment and abuse of women.
1920- King Faisal I establishes the short-lived independent Kingdom of Syria
1920- Battle of Maysalun (July 23)
1941- Syria proclaims independence, but it was not until 1944 in which it was recognized as an ‘independent republic’
1946- Syria becomes an independent nation from the colonial power of France, on the 17th of April, 1946. The French evacuate their troops, leaving the country in control of a republican government. (This day is not only known as Syria’s independence day, it is also known as ‘Evacuation Day’)
1947- Aleppo Pogrom: In this pogrom, more than half the Jewish population fled after the United Nations voted in favour for the partition of Palestine
1948- Arab-Israeli War. Syrian aligns itself along with the other Arab nations in the war against Israel.
1949- Syrian Coup D’état of March 1949. This was a bloodless coup that took place, and it was also the first coup that Syria experienced in its history. Adib al-Shishakli and Sami al-Hinnawi became the military leaders of the country.
1951- Adib al-Shishakli takes power and forms a military autocracy in Syria. As the leader of Syria, he recognized the desires of Syria’s Arab majority, and adopted a policy of Pan-Arabism.
1954- Adib al-Shishakli is overthrown. The plotters of his overthrow included members of the Syrian Communist Party, Druze Officers and Ba’ath Party Members. Iraqi backing of his overthrow was possible. Syria becomes increasingly anti-Western and pro-Soviet
1956- Suez crisis- Egypt, France, Britain and Israel go to war due to Gamal Abdel Nasser annexing the Suez Canal. Martial law is declared in Syria.
1956- Syria signs a pact with the Soviet Union; providing a foothold for Communist influence within the government, in exchange of tanks, planes and other military equipment being sent to Syria.
1957- Iraq advises Egypt and Syria against a conceivable takeover of Jordan
1958- Egypt and Syria are merged into one state; creating the United Arab Republic (Formed by then Egyptian and Syrian president’s; Gamal Abdel Nasser and Shukri al-Quwatli) Nasser dissolves all Syrian political parties, all Communist parties and dismissed pro-Soviet army officers
1961- Syria breaks off from the United Arab Republic with Egypt, and re-establishes itself as the, ‘Syrian Arab Republic’.
1963- March 8th Coup of 1963- The leftist Syrian Army officers of the National Council of the Revolutionary Command are a group of civilian and military officials who assumed control of all legislative and executive authority. Amin Hafiz becomes chairman of the national council.
1964- President Amin Hafiz of the NCRC promulgates a provisional constitution providing for the NCRC.
1966- Nur ad-Din al-Atasi, a former deputy Prime Minister becomes head of state after several longtime Ba’athist leaders are arrested as the radicals seized power in Syria. Amin Hafiz is imprisoned.
1967- Six Day War- Israel and Arab Nations go to war with Israel. Israeli forces during the conflict overran the Syrian positions on the Golan Heights, advanced rapidly, and occupied Al-Qunaytirah. A UN ceasefire proposal was accepted. The United Kingdom and the United States actively supported Israel; Syria broke relations with both countries on June 6th.
1970- General Hafez al-Assad seizes power in Syria for the next thirty years.
1971- Hafez al-Assad becomes President of Syria
1973- Yom Kippur War- Egypt and Syria attack Israel on one of its most religious holidays of the year. Syrian troops attacked Israel on the Golan Heights. The Israeli’s eventually drove the Syrian forces off the Golan Heights and advanced 32 km within Damascus. Syria then agreed to a UN sponsored cease fire, but it refused to discuss prisoner exchanges.
1974- Syria and Israel sign a disengagement agreement in May. This accord provided for a neutral zone, patrolled by UN forces, and for the repatriation of prisoners of war. Syria resumes relations with the United States, after they were severed in 1967.
1975- Syria forges closer ties with Jordan, and intervenes in the Lebanese Civil War and subsequently becomes mired in the continuing conflict.
1979- JUNE 16th: Aleppo artillery school massacre takes place. This event occurred when an officer in general, Ibrahim el-Youssef, and a group of Combatant Vanguard, had implemented a massacre inside the artillery school. 32 cadets died, and 54 were injured.
1980- MARCH 9th: Jisr al-Shughour massacre takes place.
1980- Syria signs a 20 year treaty of friendship and cooperation with the USSR
1980- JUNE 27th: Tadmor Prison Massacre takes place after a failed attempt at assassinating Hafez al-Assad. Tadmor prison is well known for holding political prisoners that were against the Assad regime.
1980- JULY 13th: Siege of Aleppo takes place. Multiple areas in Aleppo are subjected to massacres led by the Syrian Army under the leadership of Hafez al-Assad
1981- APRIL: Hama Massacre takes place (April 1981 Hama Massacre) after a failed terrorist attack on an Alawite village near Hama.
1981- Israel effectively annexes the Golan Heights, and claims legal and political authority over the region.
1982- Israel invades Lebanon; Syrian and Israeli forces clash
1982- Hama Massacre- Hama is burnt to the ground in Hafez al-Assads, ‘Scorched earth’ policy. The Muslim Brotherhood is accused of several assassinations. In retaliation, the government suppressed a full scale rebellion by the brotherhood in the governorate of Hama, reducing much of the city to rubble.
1983- March 17 Agreement
1986- United Kingdom breaks diplomatic relations with Syria; United States imposes sanctions, both accusing Syria of sponsoring international terrorism
1987- Syria orders a force of 7,000 troops into the Muslim sector of Beirut in an attempt to restore order to warring factions.
1990- Lebanese Civil War ends; A Syrian led assault crushes the resistance in East Beirut; reuniting the Lebanese capital.
1991- Syrian and Lebanese forces sign a friendship treaty calling for mutual cooperation. Syrian forces remain in the country until 2001-2005.
2000- Bashar al-Assad succeeds in his father; Hafez al-Assad, and becomes President of Syria.
2001- Syria withdraws its troops from Beirut and the surrounding area. Syria still kept 15,000 troops stationed in Lebanon, and continued to exercise a significant amount of control over Lebanese politics.
2002- The U.S singles out Syria as a threat to global security for its alleged support in terrorist groups.
2005- Lebanese Prime Minister; Rafik al-Hariri is assassinated. Syria is widely accused of being involved with his assassination. A UNSC resolution mandated Syria’s withdrawal from Lebanon. In late 2005, Syria announced that it had completely withdrawn its forces.
2008- Diplomatic relations are established between Lebanon and Syria
2011- Syrian Uprisings and Riots. The people in Syria protest for multiple freedoms, human rights and Bashar al-Assad’s corruption. The riots have claimed more than 11,000 lives by pro-Bashar royalist forces.
2012- The Syrian Army heavily shells the city of Baba Amr, Homs on the anniversary of Hama Massacre.
2012- FEBRUARY 3rd-APRIL 14th: 2012 Homs Offensive: The Syrian Army cracks down on opposition strongholds in Homs. Government forces bombard the city with artillery, rockets, mortars, tanks and helicopters.
2012- MAY 25th: Houla Massacre takes place. Regime forces kill innocent civilians, with half of the victims being children; the majority of casualties being women and children.
2012- MAY 31st: Al-Buwaida Al-Sharqiyah massacre takes place. 13 factory workers are rounded up and shot dead by Syrian government forces loyal to Bashar al-Assad.
2012- JUNE 6th: Al-Qubeir Massacre takes place. Regime forces massacre innocent civilians in a Sunni farming settlement surrounded by Alawite villages in the central province of Hama.
Country Name: Syrian Arab Republic ( الجمهورية العربية السورية